Guest Post | NHS Funding

Resource Allocation: A classic medical ethics topic that often rears its head in the inevitable reality of working in a cash-strapped public healthcare system.

Should the NHS fund this new expensive treatment for a rare disease?

Should the government pay for a new experimental cancer treatments?

Should X procedure be on the NHS, or Y?

The list is endless.

This blog covers a few basic ideas and concepts for you to broaden your understanding of why things are done as they are, enhance your opinion and help you think of the bigger picture.

Utilitarianism

One way of analysing resource allocation is using a utilitarian approach. Utilitarianism describes the moral theory that the most moral action is that which maximises the happiness (or in this instance healthiness) of a population. This seems quite a nice logical and fair systematic approach, but has one major drawback.

How do you quantify the benefits gained from a specific treatment?

Fortunately, Alan Williams, a health economist calculated a measure for doing this – the Quality Adjusted Life Year. This system described not only the length of life a specific treatment can give a patient, but also factors in the subjective quality of that life.

Interestingly, some of the ‘best’ treatments by this system including cataract surgery and hip replacements, owing the massive improvement in life these can bring (even though they are rarely viewed as life extending). However, despite quantifying the ‘best value’ treatments, this system still has its drawbacks.

Firstly, many argue that this system ignores both the old, and the chronically ill. The old will have fewer ‘life years’ per treatment and the chronically ill will have a lower ‘quality of life’ per treatment by this system, and will thus lose priority in this system.

This a great concept to think about as many new drugs are for specific diseases, which are often rare and chronic, or those which affect the elderly. Secondly, ‘quality of life’ is a highly subjective term, and, although this system goes someway to quantify it, the end result is still a subjective rating score.

Egalitarianism

Another way of analysing these topics are through an egalitarian approach. This theory states that resources should be distributed equality unless an unequal distribution would work to everyone’s advantage. However, in reality, there is not unlimited funding and therefore equality of distribution means that expensive treatments (the new drugs often featuring questions) could not justifiably be funded.

This approach does promote a decent minimum standard of care (good for everyone) and some argue that more expensive treatments can be funded elsewhere. For example, charities and private companies could find a place in an egalitarian healthcare system to fund more niche treatments.

Libertarianism

Another viewpoint worth nothing (though one which many, especially in the UK, would be against) is that of libertarianism. This system states that healthcare should follow individual liberties and free market principles – i.e to be privatised. This is an interesting viewpoint to discuss, but, given the many drawback of private healthcare and the NHS in the UK, it’s not one we in the UK really consider.

So, there we have it, a few basic approaches to the classic question of ‘should we fund this expensive new drug’.


This guest blog post is provided courtesy of writer Adi Sen, from the website UniAdmissions.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author (UniAdmissions), and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of myself or any other organisation.

Guest Post | Home Healthcare Adaptations

Today’s post is a guest feature from Michael Leavy, Managing Director of Home Healthcare Adaptations, a family-run company that specialises in adapting homes for the elderly and less abled. 


How Seniors Can Feel More Secure At Home

It is frightening just how many older people’s homes are subjected to burglaries and break-ins. Worse still, seniors themselves are targeted by malicious criminals with no respect for human life.

Thankfully, there are measures such as alarm systems, CCTV and doorbell cameras which can improve the security of a person’s home. These could be well worth investigating for elderly relatives.

All too often, we hear about elderly citizens having their houses burgled or, even worse, being attacked in their own homes. It takes an especially cowardly individual to deliberately intrude upon an elderly person’s homestead and threaten to inflict violence on them, but sadly these types of incidents occur with regularity.

Therefore, we should advise elderly relatives living in their own houses to take no chances when it comes to home security. No matter how much a security system or other measures might cost to install, the value to be derived from the peace of mind that it’s there is 100% worthwhile.

If an elderly parent living by themselves knows that their home is as secure as it can be, they will feel far more comfortable and we will be at ease knowing that they feel safe.

Home security has been made easier with the advent of automated systems which enable homeowners to set alarms remotely, switch on lights at timed intervals and monitor the house while away.

A burglar will usually be able to tell when a house is unoccupied, so even if they feel that the opportunity is right to strike, home automation can catch them in the act and allow for corrective action to be taken straight away.

We should also check in on elderly parents or neighbours regularly and advise them on small things that they can do to improve the security of their home. Simple measures like giving a house key to a trusted friend or family member instead of leaving it under a welcome mat, or keeping any valuable items obscured from the viewpoint of anyone looking into the home, will help to make them feel more secure.

The infographic below from Home Healthcare Adaptations offers some sensible pointers on how you can make elderly parents feel more comfortable and secure in their homes.

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